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ingredients and techniques

Boiling Eggs: A Primer

meg's picture

Eggs are a horribly misunderstood food. Almost all of us cook them at one time or another, and almost all of us cook them the wrong way.

I don't mean to get started on a bad foot. I'm not accusing you of crimes against food. I myself have hastily cooked eggs many times, but it's something I try to remedy every time I crack a shell.

If you're a food lover, you might find eggs as beautiful and strange as I do. I find this to be even truer after keeping chickens. Eggs are marvelously complex and compact, an intricate orb of proteins and fats bound together in a protective shell. I won't go into the composition of the egg here--I don't have the time to do it justice. But if you have a copy of Harold McGee's On Food and Cooking, I encourage you to read everything he says about eggs. If you don't have a copy of On Food and Cooking, I encourage you to buy it as soon as possible.

But what I will remind you of is how versatile eggs are. Eggs make some of our favorite foods possible--custard, mayonnaise, quiche, meringue, angel food cake--and eggs can be separated, making their protein-rich whites and much fattier yolks available for separate uses.

The key thing to remember about eggs for right now is that they begin to set at 145˚F. Thus, low and slow is the name of the game for cooking eggs. When scrambling or frying, use medium-low heat (you can even make scrambled eggs painstakingly in a double boiler, but that's another post), and never boil eggs. At most, they should be very gently simmered.

My initial reason for looking into the best way to cook eggs is because I find that many recipes essentially tell you to overcook them. Even for something like deviled eggs, where you need firm whites and dry, crumbly yolks, there's just no need to cook eggs for 15 minutes or more.

Boiling Small Batches of Eggs
I took a dozen eggs and brought them to room temperature. I recommend this because the eggs are much less likely to crack due to thermal shock when put into hot water or when brought to a boil. A quick way to bring eggs to room temp is to place them in a bowl of lukewarm water for about 5 minutes. Never leave eggs out at room temperature for extended periods of time. As awesome as eggs are, they happen to be excellent (eggcellent, if you will) carriers for salmonella, which thrives between 41˚F and 145˚F.

I then placed each egg individually in a small pot of water, brought the water just to a boil, then covered the pot and removed it from the heat. However, I let each egg sit in the covered pot, off the heat, for a different amount of time. I started with 3 minutes and increased the time by one minute for each egg. To stop the cooking, I immediately removed the eggs from the pan and ran cold water over them after the timer went off.

As you can (hopefully) see from the photos above, 3 minutes is the optimum time for a soft-boiled egg--one that you can eat with a spoon from an egg cup. 5 minutes achieves an egg with firm whites and a soft but not runny yolk (this is my preferred boiling time for eggs that will be going on salads or sliced on sandwiches). And starting at 8 minutes, you have eggs that are "hard-boiled." The 12-minute eggs still have smooth, not chalky, yolks, but I wouldn't go much above 12 minutes.

Of course, these times are for cooking one or two eggs at a time. If you pile a dozen eggs or more in a pot, the cooking time will be different. For making a larger batch of hard-boiled eggs, use a large pot--large enough so that the eggs are in a single layer. Cover the (room temperature) eggs with cool to lukewarm water. Bring the water to a boil, then cover the pot and remove it from the heat and wait 12 minutes. If you're skeptical, feel free to take an egg out of the pot at 12 minutes, run cold water over it, and open it up to see if it's done to your liking. It's much harder to overcook eggs with this method since you're not actually boiling them constantly, so even if you do leave your eggs in the pot for 15 minutes, you're not likely to get that green ring around the yolk and the overpowering sulfur smell that seems to accompany it.

For those of you cooking at high altitudes, you'll need to give your eggs more time in hot water because the boiling temperature of water decreases as altitude increases. For one to four eggs, bring the water to a rolling boil, cover the pot, and turn the heat down to its lowest setting for 12-14 minutes. For five to eight eggs, cook for 15 to 18 minutes. For nine to one dozen eggs, cook for 20 minutes. After cooking, run cold water over the eggs to cool them completely. Of course, depending on your altitude, you will probably have to experiment a bit to find the best timing for eggs cooked the way you like them.

Always run the eggs under cold water (or put them in a bowl of ice water) to stop the cooking. Eggs are quite dense and will continue to cook even after you take them out of the pot, so to overcooking, the eggs should be cooled as rapidly as possible after cooking.

To peel your eggs without cursing profusely, start with older eggs. Eggs that are a few weeks old will peel much more easily than fresh eggs. This is because very fresh eggs have a lower pH than older eggs. As the pH increases (i.e. becomes more alkaline), the shell adheres less to the egg white (albumen), and thus the eggs are easier to peel. My favorite trick for peeling hard boiled eggs is to cool the cooked eggs down completely with cold water, then empty the water out of the pan, put the lid back on, and knock the eggs around inside the pan. Don't go crazy here--you want to break the shells all over, but not destroy the eggs. Once they're cracked, cover the eggs once again with cold water and let them sit for 5 minutes or so. Then, peel the eggs under a thin stream of running cold water.

There are a few considerations I must make for folks with weakened immune systems, very young children, the pregnant, and the elderly (or anyone concerned about food safety). Having to be hyper-aware of the safety of what you eat doesn't mean that you have to overcook your eggs--you have some good options these days. At most grocery stores, you can find pasteurized eggs. These are eggs that have been gently heat-treated in the shell to kill salmonella and other potentially harmful bacteria. If you're craving a soft-boiled egg but can't abide the potential risks, pasteurized eggs are your answer.

And thus let it be said of me that I did not tell people to overcook their eggs. With the right knowledge of how to gently treat this fragile foodstuff, you can achieve perfectly cooked and delicious eggs with very little effort.

Other articles you might enjoy: Separating Eggs, Whipping and Folding Egg Whites, Pop's Deviled Eggs


arlei's picture

I sometimes have problems peeling my hard boiled eggs, do you have ant tips?

arlei's picture


meg's picture

Use older eggs. To check for age, put your eggs in a bowl filled with water. Fresh eggs will lay on the bottom, eggs that are too old (and should be thrown away) will float, and eggs that are just right will stand up on the bottom of the bowl. As eggs age, the air pocket in the large end of the egg gets larger, as does the space between the membrane and the shell. In theory, this space makes older eggs easier to peel. You should also try cracking your hard cooked eggs all over--shatter the shell. Then, either run cold water over it or submerge the egg in a bowl of water. Then try peeling them. The truth is, though, there are always going to be stubborn eggs that are difficult to peel. There's no magic bullet.

arlei's picture

Thanks for you help!

David Gervais's picture

The secret is the cold water. Pour out most of the hot water and start running cold water over the eggs, until the eggs are cool. Then gently crack all over and peel under running cold water.

Also, not mentioned in the above article, cooking times are slightly longer at high elevations.

meg's picture

Thanks, David! You're so right. I'll have to change the article to reflect the difference in boiling times at high altitudes. Thank you for pointing this out.

Merna Brown 's picture

I keep a small flock of chickens so always have a fridge full of eggs, but find it very frustrating if I want a hard boiled egg. Even the eggs that are three-weeks old are hard to nearly impossible to peel. I found a suggestion on a food blog, I can't seem to find the URL to credit this suggestion but it really works. Steam the eggs in a basket for 12 minutes (for hard eggs). Don't let them touch the water but make sure you have vigorous steam.

I didn't believe it so I walked out to the coop and grabbed 6, one of them was laid right before my eyes, you can't get fresher than that! It works, all of them peeled without a mess.

meg's picture

Thanks so much for the tip! I've never tried steaming eggs, but I'll certainly explore this technique. I'm so jealous--I miss my chickens so much and cannot wait to have the space for a flock again. Happy cooking!

kitten28's picture

that happens when its overcooked

Debbie Winchester's picture

It is interesting to read the reasons for egg-strvagent success in egg boiling. However, I think that I will stand by my Grandma's recipe which never fails to produce lovely hard-boiled eggs. Place eggs in saucepan, barely cover with tap water, pinch of salt(optional), place on medium heat, bring to boil, boil 5 minutes, let sit in the hot water for 15 minutes, rinse with cold water and peel. They are never green and they taste creamy and wonderful!

meg's picture

Don't mess with success, Debbie! If you've got a method that works, I say stick to it!

Eggna's picture

hard to peel eggs run under cold water pinch the spot of the egg where air pocket has form if you cant find it gently crack egg by lightly rolling on hard surface. Continue running under cold water OR I like to use a bowl of cold water pinch {THERE IS A FINE SKIN FILM BETWEEN THE SHELL & YOKE} break or tear it by picking up with your pinch. Allow water 2 flow between. Well~A!!! EASY PEELINGS

nora 's picture

somewhere?? not sure where! i read that putting a hole in the end of the egg that is widest or bigger, with a push pin. before boiling. it works!!
and i do this everytime. when the water starts to boil, i put my eggs in.
and set my timer for a soft but not runny yolk. about 6 1/2 minutes.. run cold water over immediately. cool off the pot as well with cold water.


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            1/4 teaspoon baking powder
            1/8 teaspoon baking soda...